“It is quite common to hear high officials in Washington and elsewhere speak of changing the map of the Middle East, as if ancient societies and myriad peoples can be shaken up like so many peanuts in a jar.”

― Edward W. Said

"A developing country that wants to develop its economy must first of all keep natural resources in its own hands."
- Deng Xiaoping

Monday, September 10, 2018

Artificial Intelligence and International Relations - Graduate Class – Fall 2018 Shanghai University


Selected Readings of International Relations
Artificial Intelligence and International Relations
Graduate Class – Fall 2018
Wednesday – 13:05 – 16:45
East Campus, Graduate School, Room 201

Instructor: Tugrul Keskin             
Office:   College of Liberal Arts                
Cell: 86+15000-465734
Office Hours: Thursday 1:00 – 4:00 PM or by appointment
E-mail: mailto:tugrulkeskin@t.shu.edu.cntugrulk@vt.edu or WeChat: tugrulkeskin

If the government regulates against use of drones or stem cells or artificial intelligence, all that means is that the work and the research leave the borders of that country and go someplace else.
Peter Diamandis

Modern technology has become a total phenomenon for civilization, the defining force of a new social order in which efficiency is no longer an option but a necessity imposed on all human activity.

Jacques Ellul

 

Course Description and Objective


The focus of this course is Artificial Intelligence and International Relations. As a result of the modern economic system, a modern state was created with modern institutions, such as state bureaucracy, modern military, foreign ministries, intelligence services, police, etc. However, the modern economic system also produced modern private institutions, such as companies, think tanks, NGOs, international organizations, foundations, etc. Hence society and the individual have changed over time, becoming more educated, traveling more, working more, and becoming more selfish and more consumption oriented.


On the other hand, in this process of transformation from traditional work to more automated dehumanized work, everything we do is recorded, watched, and observed by state or private institutions for security or consumption purposes. In the late 18th century, the invention of the steamship engine changed the basic dynamics of social and political structures; therefore, we started to see the new society based in the urban areas. The emergence of the modern state or nation-state was generated from this process of the new economy.
In the beginning of the 20th century, Ford’s assembly line and Taylor’s organizational management revolutionized state and society in a different direction than the invention of the steamship engine. Modern state structure started to form and coincided with interests of the upper class bourgeoisie. As a result, we became citizens unlike before, modern parliamentary democracy took shape; we witnessed two World Wars directly related with technological advancement in the military; in 1950s, people or citizens started to ask for more democracy and freedom. The United Nations was established with the shared common destiny for all who live on this planet. However, in the early 1990s, the IT industry began to revolutionize how companies and states operate vis-à-vis with political structure and citizens. Security studies started to emerge as a part of International Relations with conservative tendencies. Facebook, Google, Twitter, Wechat, Alipay, credit card system, and digital footprint system began to dominate domestic as well as international politics. This new technological advancement has changed our lives as citizens of a state, whether you live in the United States or China. Everything we buy online is recorded by a company for marketing purposes to sell more. The companies created massive databases for targeting costumers, whereas a state started to use AI or IT innovations for its own security in intelligence, police, foreign relations, terrorism, etc. In the early 2000s, Boston dynamics began to develop a military robot for U.S. military by using AI, which is very similar to Russian and Chinese state-owned companies. These new changes will definitely have an impact on our society, democracy, freedom, and social life.  

 
One of the most important changes will take place in International Relations. In this class, we attempt to understand what changes might take place. What would be the negative or beneficial consequences for using artificial intelligence in the 21st century? Who will be affected? Who will use AI in international relations and why? How long have we been using AI in IR? This is a new topic; we do not have the answer yet, but we will try to understand how AI revolutionizes state-to-state relations in terms of IR.

Learning Outcomes (Tugrul Keskin):
By the end of the course, you will have enhanced your:
§  Critical thinking in relation to Artificial Intelligence
§  Ability to question dogmas and taboos in today’s societies
§  Consciousness of differing perspectives and diversity
    • Understanding of world issues and trends in the context of Artificial  Intelligence
§  Understanding of the impact of Artificial Intelligence in the modern world

You also will increase your knowledge concerning:
§  Resources in your potential discipline
§  Resources specific to your region
§  Traditional information sources
§  Alternative information sources
§  Knowledge of relevant methodologies

Learning Outcomes

Core Learning Outcome: Students will demonstrate an understanding of Artificial Intelligence within the context of International Relations, as well as developing the skills and attitudes to function as “global citizens.”

Specific Outcomes:
  • Demonstrates knowledge of global issues, processes, trends, and systems (i.e., economic and political interdependency among nations; environmental-cultural interaction; global governance bodies).
  • Can articulate an understanding of her/his culture in global and comparative context; that is, recognizes that her/his culture is one of many diverse cultures and that alternate perceptions and behaviors may be based in cultural differences.
  • Demonstrates an understanding of the meaning and practice of political, military, economic, and cultural hegemony within states and within the global system.
  • Demonstrates an understanding of how her/his field is viewed and practiced in different international contexts.
  • Uses diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference, including those of the media, to think critically and solve problems.
  • Uses information from other languages and other countries to extend their access to information and experiences.
  • Interprets issues and situations from more than one cultural perspective.
  • Can articulate differences among cultures; demonstrates tolerance for the diverse viewpoints that emerge from these differences.
  • Demonstrates a critical understanding of the historical origins of the nation-state and its current role in the global system.
  • Can apply the key theoretical concepts in the field to interpret global issues.
  • Exhibits an ongoing willingness to seek out international or intercultural opportunities.

Some Readings:

1.     A Cyborg Manifesto by Donna Haraway
  1. Artificial Intelligence and International Politics by Valerie M. Hudson
    https://www.amazon.com/Artificial-Intelligence-International-Politics-Valerie/dp/0813309379
  2. The Political Economy of Robots: Prospects for Prosperity and Peace in the Automated 21st Century. Kiggins, Ryan (Ed.) Palgrave 2018. https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9783319514659
4.     The Future Computed: Artificial Intelligence and its Role in Society
5.     The Technological Society: Jacques Ellul. 1954. https://ratical.org/ratville/AoS/TheTechnologicalSociety.pdf

You will see other readings in the course timeline section below.  

Recommended Readings:

  1. Transforming Technology: A Critical Theory Revisited. Andrew Feenberg. Oxford University Press, 2002.  
  1. Technological Innovation in Legacy Sectors. William B. Bonvillian and Charles Weiss Oxford University Press, 2015. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/technological-innovation-in-legacy-sectors-9780199374519?cc=tr&lang=en&
  2. Power, Information Technology, and International Relations Theory The Power and Politics of US Foreign Policy and the Internet. McCarthy, D. Palgrave, 2015. https://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781137306890
  3. Technopolitics:  How Technology Shapes Relations Among Nations Mohan Malik.
  1. Isaac Asimov
  1. How Artificial Intelligence Could Increase the Risk of Nuclear War https://www.rand.org/blog/articles/2018/04/how-artificial-intelligence-could-increase-the-risk.html
  2. Chinese artificial intelligence start-up SenseTime raises $620m for its facial recognition technology
  1. A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence
    Text of the original 1955 Dartmouth Proposal.
    http://jmc.stanford.edu/articles/dartmouth/dartmouth.pdf
  1. Deep in the Pentagon, a Secret AI Program to Find Hidden Nuclear Missiles https://www.voanews.com/a/deep-in-the-pentagon-a-secret-ai-program-to-find-hidden-nuclear-missiles/4425464.html
  2. Artificial Intelligence To Contribute $320 Billion To The Middle East By 2030 https://www.forbesmiddleeast.com/en/artificial-intelligence-to-contribute-320-billion-to-the-middle-east-by-2030/
  3. Will Artificial Intelligence Undermine Nuclear Stability? by Andrew J. Lohn and Edward Geist https://www.rand.org/blog/2018/05/will-artificial-intelligence-undermine-nuclear-stability.html
  4. Artificial intelligence in non-profit organizations  Darrell M. West and Theron Kelso Tuesday, June 5, 2018
  1. Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, and Autonomous Policy Decision-Making: A Crisis in International Relations Theory? By Ryan David Kiggins https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-51466-6_10
  2. Åkersten, S.I. 1987. The Strategic Computing Program. In Arms and Artificial Intelligence: Weapon and Arms Control Applications of Advanced Computing, ed. A.M. Din, 87–99. SIPRI: Stockholm, Sweden.
  3. Din, A.M. 1987. Arms and Artificial Intelligence: Weapon and Arms Control Applications of Advanced Computing. Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
  4. Gantz, J., and D. Reinsel. 2012. The Digital Universe in 2020: Big Data, Bigger Digital Shadows, and Biggest Growth in the Far East. https://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/idc-digital-universe-united-states.pdf. Accessed 2 Sep 2016.
  5. Howard, P.N. 2015. Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up. New Haven: Yale University Press. https://yalebooks.yale.edu/book/9780300199475/pax-technica
  6. Mayer-Schönberger, V., and K. Cukier. 2013. Big Data: A Revolution that will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. https://www.amazon.com/Big-Data-Revolution-Transform-Think/dp/0544227751
  7. Monahan, T. 2010. The Future of Security? Surveillance Operations at Homeland Security Fusion Centers. Social Justice 37 2/3 (120–121): 84–98. http://publicsurveillance.com/papers/FC_Social_Justice.pdf
  8. Monahan, T., and N.A. Palmer. 2009. The Emerging Politics of DHS Fusion Centers. Security Dialogue 40 (6): 617–636. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/92a6/c7717ac2d34d72649f0c608bfc99881c72ae.pdf
  9. Newkirk, A.B. 2010. The Rise of the Fusion-Intelligence Complex: A Critique of Political Surveillance After 9/11. Surveillance & Society 8 (1): 43–60. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.427.1648&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  10. Nikutta, R. 1987. Artificial Intelligence and the Automated Tactical Battlefield. In Arms and Artificial Intelligence: Weapons and Arms Control Applications of Advanced Computing, ed. A.M. Din, 100–134. SIPRI: Stockholm, Sweden. https://www.sipri.org/publications/1987/arms-and-artificial-intelligence-weapons-and-arms-control-applications-advanced-computing
  11. Oren, I. 2006. Can Political Science Emulate the Natural Sciences? The Problem of Self-disconfirming Analysis. Polity 38 (1): 72–100. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1057/palgrave.polity.2300039
  12. Owen, T. 2015. Disruptive Power: The Crisis of the State in the Digital Age. USA: Oxford University Press. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/disruptive-power-9780199363865?cc=tr&lang=en&
  13. Peled, A. 2014. Traversing Digital Babel: Information, e-Government, and Exchange. Cambridge: MIT Press. https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/traversing-digital-babel
  14. Roland, A., and P. Shiman. 2002. Strategic Computing: DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983–1993. Cambridge: MIT Press. https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/strategic-computing
  15. Singer, P.W. 2009. Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century. New York: Penguin. https://www.amazon.com/Wired-War-Robotics-Revolution-Conflict/dp/0143116843
  16. Singer, P.W., and A. Friedman. 2014. Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York: Oxford University Press. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/cybersecurity-and-cyberwar-9780199918119?cc=tr&lang=en&
  17. Tickner, A.B., and D.L. Blaney. 2013. Thinking International Relations Differently. London: Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781136473821
  18. How the CIA is Using Artificial Intelligence to Collect Social Media Data https://futurism.com/how-the-cia-is-using-artificial-intelligence-to-collect-social-media-data/
  19. Data swamped US spy agencies put hopes on artificial intelligence https://phys.org/news/2017-09-swamped-spy-agencies-artificial-intelligence.html  
  20. CIA plans to replace spies with AI https://thenextweb.com/artificial-intelligence/2018/04/23/cia-plans-to-replace-spies-with-ai/
  21. Putin says the nation that leads in AI ‘will be the ruler of the world’ https://www.theverge.com/2017/9/4/16251226/russia-ai-putin-rule-the-world
  22. Is AI a Threat to Christianity?  Are you there, God? It’s I, robot. https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/02/artificial-intelligence-christianity/515463/ 
  23. Religion and the Robot http://awww.hods.org/pdf/Azriel%20Rosenfeld%20-%20Religion%20and%20the%20Robot.pdf
  24. Robots, Rights and Religion https://digitalcommons.butler.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1198&context=facsch_papers
  25. Can a Robot Join the Faith? By Avi Steinberg. The New Yorker, November 13, 2017 https://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/can-a-robot-join-the-faith
  26. Google bans development of artificial-intelligence that could be used for weapons, CEO says https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/google-artificial-intelligence-development-ban-weapons-software-ai-sundar-pichai-a8389591.html
  27. Can Democracy Survive the internet? By Nathaniel Persily Journal of Democracy Volume 28, Number 2 April 2017
  1. How a Powerful Spy Camera Invented at Duke Ended Up in China’s Hands High-tech camera, conceived by scientists for the Pentagon, finds light by moving east By Wenxin Fan June 11, 2018 https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-a-powerful-spy-camera-invented-at-duke-ended-up-in-chinas-hands-1528714895
  2. Google’s true origin partly lies in CIA and NSA research grants for mass surveillance https://qz.com/1145669/googles-true-origin-partly-lies-in-cia-and-nsa-research-grants-for-mass-surveillance/
  3. How the CIA made Google Inside the secret network behind mass surveillance, endless war, and Skynet— https://medium.com/insurge-intelligence/how-the-cia-made-google-e836451a959e
  4. Predator Empire Drone Warfare and Full Spectrum Dominance. Ian G. R. Shaw. The University of Minnesota Press, 2016.  https://www.upress.umn.edu/book-division/books/predator-empire
  5. Swarm Troopers: How small drones will conquer the world. David Hambling
The Future of War: A History. Lawrence Freedman
  1. Nanoweapons: A growing Threat to Humanity. Louis A. Del Monte. University of Nebraska Press, 2017.
  1. The Future of Violence: Robots, Germs, Hackers, and Drones. Benjamin Wittes & Gabriella Blum.
  1. China's Giant Ionosphere-Zapping Radar Is a Defense System Masquerading as Science https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/research/a21272688/china-giant-ionosphere-zapping-radar/
  2. D-Day: How technology helped win the Normandy invasion and World War II by Michael S. Rosenwald. The Washington Post, June 6, 2018 https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2018/06/06/d-day-how-american-and-british-technology-helped-win-the-battle-and-world-war-ii/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.d8b6e89a9b17
  3. Our Infant Information Revolution. Joseph S. Nye. Jun 15, 2018
  1. Tech World: Welcome to the Digital Revolution. Kevin Drum. Foreign Affairs - July/August 2018 Issue
  1. Can science fiction help us prepare for 21st-century warfare? By ML Cavanaugh Los Angeles Times, May 28, 2018. http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-cavanaugh-art-and-war-20180528-story.html   
  2. Systems simulation artificial intelligence based simulations of foreign policy decision making. Paul A. Anderson Stuart J. Thorson. April 1982 Volume 27, Issue 2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/bs.3830270211
  3. Foreign Policy Decision Making: Perception, Cognition, and Artificial Intelligence. Edited by Donald A. Sylvan and Steve Chan. (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1984. https://www.amazon.com/Foreign-Policy-Decision-Making-International/dp/0030697719
  4. Without binding rules, AI guidelines are just wishful thinking.  Emre Eren Korkmaz. Open Global Rights,  June 27, 2018. https://www.openglobalrights.org/without-binding-rules-aI-guidelines-are-just-wishful-thinking/?lang=English
  5. Can a machine think (anything new)? Automation beyond simulation. M. Beatrice Fazi. AI & SOCIETY, 2018.  https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00146-018-0821-0.pdf
  6. What Americans think about creating a new federal agency to oversee the robots. Ashleigh Garrison. CNBC, July 1, 2018.  https://www.cnbc.com/2018/06/29/what-americans-think-about-a-new-federal-agency-to-oversee-robots.html
  7. Pentagon’s AI Surge On Track, Despite Google Protest In the long term, large government contracts and cutting-edge projects will be hard for tech companies to resist. Lara Seligman. Foreign Policy | June 29, 2018 https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/06/29/google-protest-wont-stop-pentagons-a-i-revolution/  
  8. Prediction Machines: The Simple Economics of Artificial Intelligence. Ajay Agrawal, Joshua Gans and Avi Goldfarb. Harvard Bussines Review, 2018.
  1. Artificial Unintelligence: How Computers Misunderstand the World. Meredith Broussard. IT Press, 2018. https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/artificial-unintelligence
  2. In The Coming Age of a Trustless Society via Blockchain, We Won’t Trust Artificial Intelligence https://medium.com/@JenGreyson/in-the-coming-age-of-a-trustless-society-via-blockchain-we-wont-trust-artificial-intelligence-f019ff4caf2a
  3. AI education booming as China cultivates talent http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201807/02/WS5b39bd06a3103349141e0269.html
  4. Robot Sophia inspires young Ethiopian AI enthusiasts
  1. China to accelerate establishment of AI industry clusters, report http://en.silkroad.news.cn/2018/0627/100954.shtml
  2. China to accelerate establishment of AI industry clusters, report http://en.silkroad.news.cn/2018/0627/100954.shtml
  3. Can AI be used to run Political Systems?
  1. How Artificial Intelligence Will Reshape the Global Order. Nicholas Wright. Foreign Affairs - July 10, 2018  https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/world/2018-07-10/how-artificial-intelligence-will-reshape-global-order
  2. The Rise of Big Data: How It's Changing the Way We Think About the World Kenneth Cukier and Viktor Mayer-Schoenberger Foreign Affairs Vol. 92, No. 3 (MAY/JUNE 2013) https://www.foreignaffairs.com/system/files/pdf/articles/2013/92305.pdf
  3. The threat of killer robots https://en.unesco.org/courier/2018-3/threat-killer-robots
  4. Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor. Virginia Eubanks. St. Martin's Press – 2018.  https://internationalstudiesandsociology.blogspot.com/2018/07/automating-inequality-how-high-tech.html
  5. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. Cathy O'Neil. New York, 2016. https://internationalstudiesandsociology.blogspot.com/2018/07/weapons-of-math-destruction-how-big.html


Recommended Movies and Documentaries: 

1.     What is Artificial Intelligence?
2.     What is Artificial Intelligence Exactly?
3.     How Will Artificial Intelligence Affect Your Life | Jeff Dean | TEDxLA
4.     Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
5.     Davos 2018: Google CEO Sundar Pichai on A.I., Cybersecurity, Tax
6.     Minority Report (2002)
7.     Brazil (1985)
8.     A Scanner Darkly (2006)
9.     EX MACHINA (2015)
10.   Matrix (1999)
11.   UNCANNY (2015)
12.   1984 George Orwell (1984)
13.   Orwell's 1984 Summary
14.   Westworld (1973)
15.   2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z2UWOeBcsJI
16.   District 9 (2009)
17.   I, Robot (2004)
18.   Her (2013)
19.   Surrogates (2009)
20.   Meet Sophia: The first robot declared a citizen by Saudi Arabia https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8Ox6H64yu8
21.   How Artificial Intelligence Will Impact The Middle East's Economy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=beAL6I8rX-k
  1. President Barack Obama on How Artificial Intelligence Will Affect Jobs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DgL32wtgeXQ
  2. The Dawn of Killer Robots
  1. The Most Dangerous Town on the Internet - Where Cybercrime Goes to Hide
  1. How Israel Rules The World Of Cyber Security
  1. Slaughterbots
  1. Meet Sophia: The first robot declared a citizen by Saudi Arabia https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8Ox6H64yu8
  2. Podcast Oklahoma Humanities: WILL DEMOCRACY SURVIVE THE INTERNET?
  1. US Military Released Micro Drone Swarm From FA 18 Super Hornet Jet... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGAk5gRD-t0  
  2. American Top Secret Killer Terminator Robots for Future US Military Army https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hoy9tgGEvSY  
  3. Meet SAM, The First A.I. Politician
  1. The Future of War: A History, by Sir. Lawrence Freedman at KFCRIS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g77rE_2nG2c
  2. The Imitation Game - Official Trailer - The Weinstein Company https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5CjKEFb-sM
  3. The Betrayal by Technology A Portrait of Jacques Ellul https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BOCtu-rXfPk
  4. Humans, Gods and Technology - VPRO documentary - 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tQd_5as_cMY
  5. The Future of Artificial Intelligence Documentary 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzT3Tkwx17A
  6. The Rise of AI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dk7h22mRYHQ   
  7. Imagining The Singularity: What Happens When Computers Transcend Us? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q6vtNPp2P94
  8. Slaughterbots, Robot Sophia and Google's Deepmind Exposed
  1. Artificial Intelligence Will Necessitate a Universal Basic Income - Yanis Varoufakis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BJapiiBcHPs
  2. What happens when our computers get smarter than we are? | Nick Bostrom https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnT1xgZgkpk
  3. The Real Reason to be Afraid of Artificial Intelligence | Peter Haas | TEDxDirigo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRzBk_KuIaM
  4. Yoshua Bengio on intelligent machines
  1. Lo And Behold: Reveries of the Connected World - Official Trailer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zc1tZ8JsZvg
  2. Garry Kasparov on Artificial Intelligence, Technology and Politics, and AlphaZero Chess https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dj97gyu2vF4

Podcast:
  1. The Future of Non-State Power. CSIS, 2018.

Websites:

  1. Robots and Artificial Intelligence https://www.cfr.org/robots-and-artificial-intelligence
  2. Artificial Intelligence | Center for Strategic and International Studies https://www.csis.org/programs/technology-policy-program/technology-and-innovation/artificial-intelligence
  3. Artificial Intelligence - Brookings Institution https://www.brookings.edu/book/artificial-intelligence/
  4. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYMPOSIUM - 1985 https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/cia-rdp87m00539r000600730001-2
  5. The European AI Alliance https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/european-ai-alliance
  6. School for the Future of Innovation in Society - Arizona State University https://sfis.asu.edu/
  7. Montreal Institute for Learning Algorithms University of Montreal https://mila.quebec/
  8. Oxford Internet Institute https://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/
  9. Artificial Intelligence - RAND https://www.rand.org/topics/artificial-intelligence.html
  10. Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College http://dronecenter.bard.edu/
  11. A lexicon for artificial intelligence https://en.unesco.org/courier/2018-3/lexicon-artificial-intelligence
  12. Global AI Policy https://futureoflife.org/ai-policy/
  13. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (Third edition) by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/

Course Philosophy:
The goal of this course is to become familiar with the social, political, and economic underpinnings of Artificial Intelligence and International Relations. The success of this course depends on your continued and sustained reading and participation. The course will be based on a four-dimensional method of learning, which includes inquiry and critical thinking; communication; and will draw on the diversity of human experience and ethics and social responsibility. First, I would like you to critically analyze what you learn in this class or have learned so far through the media and your education, because in today’s world, truth is a relative concept. Throughout human history, critical thinking is one of the most important factors that have contributed to human development.  In order to become active, self-motivated, and empowered learners and future leaders, you will need to have the ability to think critically, and therefore your criticism, feedback, and suggestions are necessary. Second, I would like for you to enhance your writing and oral communication skills in this course. Therefore, it is important to clearly elaborate your arguments in class discussion as well as in the written assignments.

Third, we are each part of the human mosaic, and all have different experiences based on our unique social, political, and economic differences. We can all learn from and respect each other and benefit from our diversity. Please try to learn from and understand those with different perspectives from your own. Lastly, we need to learn that we are all part of this intellectual community and part of a larger society, and all have social and ethical responsibilities to our family, community, classmates, and humanity. We live in a globalized world and therefore, we need to be aware of events in our community and the world today. In order to enhance our knowledge, we must critically examine our social, political, and economic environment in order to apply this knowledge to our experience.

Technique has penetrated the deepest recesses of the human being. The machine tends not only to create a new human environment, but also to modify man's very essence. The milieu in which he lives is no longer his. He must adapt himself, as though the world were new, to a universe for which he was not created. He was made to go six kilometers an hour, and he goes a thousand. He was made to eat when he was hungry and to sleep when he was sleepy; instead, he obeys a clock. He was made to have contact with living things, and he lives in a world of stone. He was created with a certain essential unity, and he is fragmented by all the forces of the modern world.
Jacques Ellul, The Technological Society

Course Requirements:


To prevent confusion later, please read the following information:

Grades: Your grade for this course will be based on your performance on the following components, shown below with their dates and respective weights.

Item                                                    Date                                        Weight (%)

Quizzes (4)                                                                                                     40.0
Weekly Class Presentations                                                                            10.0
Class Participation/Attendance                                                                        10.0
Newspaper Articles                                                                                         10.0
Final Paper                                                                                                      30.0


Final Paper: You will select a topic related to Artificial Intelligence and International Relations and will write a critical and analytical paper. I must approve your final paper proposal first. Each student must select a different topic with a well-defined research question, so it is important to clear your topic with me as soon as possible. For your final paper, I created a sample format, which you will receive by email.
The final paper must be at least 4,000 words. The last day to submit your final paper is Sunday 5th week of the class.
CRITERIA:        If you select an organization after ………… you will lose 3 points!
                            If your paper is late, you will lose another 4 points!
                            If your final paper is less than 4,000 words, you will lose 5 points!  

Quizzes: You will have 4 quizzes. The quizzes will have 20 questions from each week’s class readings and discussions. Each quiz is worth 10 points and each question is worth 0.5 point. You will find the schedule of quizzes below. Please carefully review the quiz schedule. If you have schedule conflict, drop the class. If you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to contact me directly.       

Attendance: Regular attendance is one of the most important parameters to successful completion of the course requirements. If you miss more than 4 classes, you will not receive an attendance grade.  Excuses will not be permitted for any reason.

Class Participation: Each student must read the course materials before they attend class and I expect them to participate in class discussion. Class participation in the form of informed questions and comments will be taken into consideration when determining your final grade. Additionally, the class participation grade also depends on class attendance.

Weekly Presentations: Each week, two or three students will be assigned a weekly topic from the readings. These students will summarize the readings and prepare a content outline and 4-6 questions for the class, in order to come prepared to lead the class discussion for 15 minutes. Each student must always read the course materials before they attend class, and I expect you to participate actively in the class discussion. I strongly recommend that you present in earlier weeks rather than later in the semester, because you may not find the right time available to present, and will loose presentation points. Presentation dates are available on a first-come first-served basis. The timeline for weekly presentations will be provided in the first week of class. After we have filled in student names and finalized the weekly presentation schedule.

Newspaper Articles: During the semester, you can bring 10 newspaper articles related to our class subjects. You cannot bring more than one article in the same week. You will have to summarize these articles in class and will find the recommended newspapers listed on http://internationalstudiesandsociology.blogspot.com/, under the external links section. Newspaper articles sent by email will not be accepted. Please bring to class the first page of the printed/hard copy of the article. Some of the recommended newspapers are The Guardian, Al-Jazeera, Democracynow.org, Financial Times, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Pravda, Haaretz, China Daily, and The Economist. Please do not bring articles from local newspapers!


PLEASE READ CAREFULLY!

Coming late to class: Latecomers will not be accepted to class, so be on time. If you are late for a class, please do not disturb your classmates and me and do not come at all. Please also do not send an email or call me regarding your class attendance. If there is a medical need, bring an official letter from a doctor. Whatever the reason is, if you cannot come to class, this is your responsibility. If you miss more than 4 classes, you will not receive an attendance grade.

PLEASE READ CAREFULLY! 
  
Laptop and cell phone policy: No laptops or cell phones will be allowed in this class. Please turn your cell phone off before you come to class. If you use the Internet/laptop or your cell phone during class, you will be asked to leave.

PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES:
  • Why a Leading Professor of New Media Just Banned Technology Use in Class
  • Why You Should Take Notes by Hand — Not on a Laptop
  • To Remember a Lecture Better, Take Notes by Hand

Responsibility: You and/or your parents pay tuition for this class; therefore, you have responsibility to yourself and/or your parents. Passing or failing the class is not the main objective, but rather that you learn and improve your knowledge. Please read and try to understand the main concepts of this class. If you are having difficulty, please do not hesitate to see me and discuss your concerns!

Each year, almost more than one million people graduate from Chinese and American public universities (see http://collegecompletion.chronicle.com/). As you will see from the statistics, the job market is very competitive; therefore, students need to improve their knowledge, skill, and experience in order to find a job they want. Learning is a lifelong process. An academic institution like Shanghai University will provide you with an educational discipline and methodology; everything else is up to you. You should study and improve your skills, in order to compete with the rest of the graduates. While you are in the program, you should apply for internships to obtain relevant experiences before you graduate. Therefore, if you need a letter of recommendation for an internship or job, please do not hesitate to ask me, if you receive at least an A, A- or B+ grade from my class. Please also remember that an undergraduate degree might not be enough to find the job you want; therefore, you might need to apply to graduate school. In order to apply to graduate school, you will also need to have a letter of recommendation. I am also happy to advise you on graduate school or provide a letter of recommendation if you receive an A, A- or B+ grade. 


No Laptops and cell phones will be allowed in this class!


Course Timeline



WEEK - 1
Introduction to the Course
Overview of Syllabus
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and International Relations

1.     How Technology Changes Society By WILLIAM FIELDING OGBURN
2.     Technopolitics: How Technology Shapes Relations Among Nations Mohan Malik https://apcss.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Mohan-Malik.pdf
3.     Artificial Intelligence (AI) And Global Geopolitics
4.     Artificial Intelligence and International Politics Gaming by Charles L. Mitchell http://paperroom.ipsa.org/papers/paper_5420.pdf
  1. An Objectifying Interface Between Hard and Social Sciences to Reconsider the Study of International Relations by Renaud Barbat and Alexandre Dagiste
  1. Technology and International Relations by Sai Felicia Krishna-Hensel http://internationalstudies.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.001.0001/acrefore-9780190846626-e-319
  2. Science, technology and international relations by Charles Weis
  1. Impact of Science and Technology on International Relations by B D Nagchaudhuri http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0020881788025002001

Documentary:

1.     A Cyborg Manifesto by Donna Haraway
Donna Haraway's 'A Cyborg Manifesto': A Brief Overview https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqglzX_y5wM
2.     Lo And Behold: Reveries of the Connected World - Official Trailer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zc1tZ8JsZvg
  1. How Will Artificial Intelligence Affect Your Life | Jeff Dean | TEDxLA



WEEK - 2

Theoretical Foundations of Artificial Intelligence
What is the Artificial Intelligence?

  1. Digital Diplomacy: The Impact of the Internet on International Relations.  Nicholas Westcott

2.     New Technologies as a Factor of International Relations New Technologies as a Factor of International Relations

https://www.cambridgescholars.com/download/sample/63425

3.     Artificial Intelligence and Foreign Policy

  1. Artificial Intelligence and National Security by Greg Allen and Taniel Chan  https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/artificial-intelligence-and-national-security
  2. Beyond a Human Framework of International Relations by Brett Daniel Shehadey
    https://www.diplomaticourier.com/beyond-a-human-framework-of-international-relations/
  3. Technological Ambivalence and International Relations by Stefan Fritsch

Documentary:

1. The Real Reason to be Afraid of Artificial Intelligence | Peter Haas | TEDxDirigo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRzBk_KuIaM
2. Understanding Artificial Intelligence and Its Future | Neil Nie | TEDxDeerfield https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SN2BZswEWUA
  1. Meet Sophia: The first robot declared a citizen by Saudi Arabia https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8Ox6H64yu8
  2. Will Smith Tries Online Dating https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ml9v3wHLuWI


WEEK - 3

Theoretical Foundations of Artificial Intelligence
What is the Artificial Intelligence?

1.     Artificial Intelligence and International Politics Gaming By Charles L. Mitchell Grambling State University http://paperroom.ipsa.org/papers/paper_5420.pdf
2.     Artificial Intelligence on the Front Lines by Thom Dixon - Australian Institute of International Affairs
3.     How Robots Will Break Politics
4.     Polity Without Politics? Artificial Intelligence Versus Democracy Lessons From Neal Asher’s Polity Universe
5.     Computational International Relations H. Akin Unver  https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1803/1803.00105.pdf
7.     Shaping a Future of Artificial Intelligence That Benefits Society https://www.politico.eu/sponsored-content/shaping-a-future-of-artificial-intelligence-that-benefits-society/

Documentary:

1.     Not If, But How Artificial Intelligence Might Take Over the World | Hugh Baillie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDMP2t6lUjo

QUIZ – 1


WEEK - 4

Economy and Artificial Intelligence

1.     Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence
2.     Artificial Intelligence and the Ideology of Capitalist Reconstruction https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02472776
3.     Artificial Intelligence and Economic Growth
4.     How Artificial Intelligence Is Taking Over the Economy
5.     How Artificial Intelligence Enables the Economics of Abundance https://medium.com/intuitionmachine/artificial-intelligence-and-the-economics-of-abundance-92bd1626ee94

Documentary:

  1. AI & The Future of Work | Volker Hirsch | TEDxManchester https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRw4d2Si8LA
  2. Will robots steal our jobs? - The future of work (1/2) | DW https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6IOH7b68byk  
  3. Will robots steal our jobs? - The future of work (2/2) | DW https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NGUbboTjT18
4.     True Artificial Intelligence will change everything | Juergen Schmidhuber | TEDxLakeComo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Y7PLaxXUrs


WEEK – 5

Society and Artificial Intelligence

1.     The Future Computed: Artificial Intelligence and its Role in Society
2.     Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence
4.     The Future of Artificial Intelligence and its Impact on Society
5.     The Future Computed: Artificial Intelligence and its role in society https://blogs.microsoft.com/blog/2018/01/17/future-computed-artificial-intelligence-role-society/

Extra Readings:


Documentary:

1. Where AI is today and where it's going. | Richard Socher | TEDxSanFrancisco https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8cmx7V4oIR8
2. Humans, Gods and Technology - VPRO documentary - 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tQd_5as_cMY
3. Jacques Ellul - Understanding our Age
QUIZ – 2


WEEK - 6

Security and Artificial Intelligence

1.     Artificial Intelligence and the Military by Robert W. Button, RAND https://www.rand.org/blog/2017/09/artificial-intelligence-and-the-military.html
2.     Artificial Intelligence and Cybersecurity: The Real Deal
3.     How Will Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Impact Cyber Security? https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2018/02/15/how-will-artificial-intelligence-and-machine-learning-impact-cyber-security/#30a775656147

Documentary:

1. Machines That Think: The Good, Bad and Scary of A.I. | Dr. James Canton | TEDxMarin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOaLgJ3hYt4
2. The Dawn of Killer Robots
3. American Top Secret Killer Terminator Robots for Future US Military Army Full Documentary


WEEK - 7

State and Artificial Intelligence

1.     ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND FOREIGN POLICY DECISION-MAKING Russ H. Berkoff Major, United States Army B.S., United States Military Academy, 1981 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN DEFENSE ANALYSIS from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December 1997. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/7993
  1. Artificial Intelligence and Formal Models of International Behavior by Philip A. Schrodt
    The American Sociologist Vol. 19, No. 1 (Spring, 1988), pp. 71-85 
    https://www.jstor.org/stable/27698411?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
3. Politics and the Tools of Artificial Intelligence http://www.net4dem.org/cyrev/archive/issue3/articles/AI/AI.PDF  
4.     Artificial Intelligence and International Affairs Disruption Anticipated. M. L. Cummings, Heather M. Roff, Kenneth Cukier, Jacob Parakilas  and Hannah Bryce. Chatham House Report, 2018. https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/publications/research/2018-06-14-artificial-intelligence-international-affairs-cummings-roff-cukier-parakilas-bryce.pdf
5. Can AI Be Used to Run Political Systems?
6. Artificial Intelligence and Politics

Documentary:

1. Slaughterbots, Robot Sophia and Google's Deepmind Exposed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mc5yt_OzwCY
  1. How Israel Rules The World Of Cyber Security

QUIZ – 3


WEEK - 8

Private Military Contractors and Artificial Intelligence

3. How AI and Robotics Will Disrupt the Defense Industry
4. Artificial Intelligence in Defence and Security Industry
5. Austin AI Startup SparkCognition Wins Landmark Military Contract https://www.bizjournals.com/austin/news/2017/08/18/austin-ai-startup-sparkcognition-wins-landmark.html
6. Artificial Intelligence, International Competition, and the Balance of Power https://tnsr.org/2018/05/artificial-intelligence-international-competition-and-the-balance-of-power/

Documentary:

1. Artificial Intelligence
2. Palm Sized Flying Killer Robots a.k.a Slaughterbots https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2yhtnVJSc9M


WEEK - 9

Case Studies: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, USA

1. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency: Overview and Issues for Congress https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R45088.pdf
2. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency: Technology Transition http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a434135.pdf
  1. Artificial Intelligence - CSIS
    https://www.csis.org/programs/technology-policy-program/technology-and-innovation/artificial-intelligence
  2. The Race for Artificial Intelligence. DefenseOne. June 2018 https://www.defenseone.com/assets/race-ai/portal/

Case Studies: China and Artificial Intelligence
1. How China is preparing for an AI-powered Future
2. Next Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan Issued by State Council
3. Translation: Chinese government outlines AI ambitions through 2020
4. Artificial Intelligence and Chinese Power Beijing's Push for a Smart Military—and How to Respond. Elsa B. Kania. Foreign Affairs, December 5, 2017.
5. New Frontiers of Chinese Defense Innovation: Artificial Intelligence and Quantum Technologies Kania, Elsa B. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation UC San Diego 2018-12.  https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt66n8s5br/qt66n8s5br.pdf?t=p9k9xh

Extra Readings:

Documentary:

1. China Has The Fastest Growing Rise of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics!  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1duvKffq9mw 
2. Dangers of artificial intelligence

QUIZ – 4


WEEK - 10

Artificial Intelligence and Democracy/Citizenship/Media/Education

1.     How Artificial Intelligence Conquered Democracy
2.     How artificial intelligence conquered democracy
3. Artificial Intelligence Has the Power to Destroy or Save Democracy https://www.cfr.org/blog/artificial-intelligence-has-power-destroy-or-save-democracy
4. The Future Is Artificial: AI Adoption in Broadcast and Media
5. Artificial Intelligence Poised to Revolutionise Media Agency Structure

Documentary:

1. Artificial intelligence & the future of education systems | Bernhard Schindlholzer | TEDxFHKufstein https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZdHhs-I9FVo
2. President Barack Obama on How Artificial Intelligence Will Affect Jobs | WIRED https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DgL32wtgeXQ
3. The Future of Artificial Intelligence Documentary 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzT3Tkwx17A
  1. HEWLETT PACKARD ENTERPRISE - Moral Code: The Ethics of AI https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=3&v=GboOXAjGevA