“It is quite common to hear high officials in Washington and elsewhere speak of changing the map of the Middle East, as if ancient societies and myriad peoples can be shaken up like so many peanuts in a jar.”

― Edward W. Said

"A developing country that wants to develop its economy must first of all keep natural resources in its own hands."
- Deng Xiaoping

Friday, February 27, 2015

Haraway's 'Manifesto for Cyborgs' at 30

By McKenzie Wark

Verso / 24 February 2015

It is 30 years since Donna Haraway published the first version of her 'Manifesto for Cyborgs'. It still makes for extraordinary reading. It anticipates many of the concerns of our own time, from the link between technology and militarized surveillance to the rise of precarious labor, which Haraway called the 'homework economy.' And certainly, in the popular imagination of science fiction, the cyborg figure has not gone away, even if most popular narratives are less then enabling. Alex Rivera's Sleep Dealer (2008) is an honorable exception. Better to think through the 'ironic political myth' that Haraway constructed. In Molecular Red (forthcoming from Verso) I make the case that Haraway is not only an enduring feminist and science studies thinker, but also a Marxist one. Below is a sample from a later version of the 'Manifesto for Cyborgs'. Here is a link to the rest

"Contemporary science fiction is full of cyborgs — creatures simultaneously animal and machine, who populate worlds ambiguously natural and crafted. Modern medicine is also full of cyborgs, of couplings between organism and machine, each conceived as coded devices, in an intimacy and with a power that was not generated in the history of sexuality. Cyborg 'sex' restores some of the lovely replicative baroque of ferns and invertebrates (such nice organic prophylactics against heterosexism). Cyborg replication is uncoupled from organic reproduction. Modern production seems like a dream of cyborg colonization work, a dream that makes the nightmare of Taylorism seem idyllic. And modern war is a cyborg orgy, coded by C3I, command-control-communication-intelligence, an $84 billion item in 1984's US defence budget. I am making an argument for the cyborg as a fiction mapping our social and bodily reality and as an imaginative resource suggesting some very fruitful couplings. Michael Foucault's biopolitics is a flaccid premonition of cyborg politics, a very open field."        

Thursday, February 26, 2015

SPRING 2015: Seminar: INTL 407 Development, Urbanization, and Work

Seminar: INTL 407
Development, Urbanization, and Work
(Sociology of Development, Urbanization, and Work/Labor in Modern Era)
Spring 2015

Development, Urbanization and Work
Spring 2015 – CRN 61583 / INTL 407
MONDAY and WEDNESDAY 18:00-19:50
SCI Research & Teaching Center 139B

Instructor: Tugrul Keskin             
Office:    333 East Hall – Department of International and Global Studies                    
Google Phone:      202-630-1025
Office Hours:       Tuesday 12:30  – 15:30 PM or by appointment
E-mail:  tugrulkeskin (at) pdx.edu (PLEASE include “DUW-INTL407” in the subject line)


Course Description and Objective:

The subject of this course is work, urbanization, and development in the globalized world. These three concepts cannot be understood separately; they are all related with and influence one another. In this class, we will explore these three components of modern life.

The emergence of the modern understanding of work is a result of industrial capitalism and its impacts within the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe, specifically Britain, Germany, and France. This new form of production led to mass domestic migration in these countries, which resulted in the emergence of new urban centers in Europe based on labor and factories. This was the initial stage of capitalism in the region. The contemporary understanding of “urbanization” began with the industrialization process in England and later flourished all over Europe at the end of the 18th and 19th centuries as a result of capitalism. Therefore, the existence of the city or the metropolis cannot be separated from the capitalist mode of production. This new economic process shaped social and political conditions and has resulted in modernization and individualism. Related to these concepts, we will review the historical emergence of the modern conception of work and its effects on people’s experience of daily life.   

The urban environment has a very different meaning in modern societies than it does to more primitive and traditional societies, because the concept itself is in fact a new modern political and social geography cultivated in the 19th- and 20th-century political, social, and economic life. An American sociologist, Louis Wirth, names this process as Urbanism as a way of life, and this way of life is rooted in the modern definition of work.

Concepts such as the nation-state, metropolis, territorialization, urban life, individualism, suburbs, downtowns, crime, pollution, overpopulation, chaotic urbanization, slum houses, and ghettos are all related with space/territory. Museums, zoos, theaters, entertainment centers, malls, and many other structures have also been created as new spaces of social and political activity and interaction, which directly relates with the economy. We can expand our analysis from politics to individual life, as George Simmel attempted to do in his analysis of late 19th- and early 20th-century Germany through a comparison of city life and the individual. Simmel examined the effects of the new urban phenomenon on these two concepts within modern life. According to Simmel, the metropolis freed man from taboos or dogmas rooted in tradition at the same time as it freed man from the religion that connected him to community-based life (Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft). This is also the transformation from mechanic to a more organic form of solidarity taking place in cities, according to Emile Durkheim. However, Simmel also argues that man’s new “freedom” and individuality does not mean that he is actually free in this new urban context, but that he is instead more dependent on others. Classical theorists such as Marx, Weber, and Durkheim all see urbanization as a product of the industrialization that created a more complex societal structure. We will therefore attempt to explore how life in the global cities is shaped.  

The definition of work and the birth of the modern cities has cultivated the idea of development, a concept that is also rooted in new forms of economic production. However, this is a controversial concept in the “developing” countries. The emergence of capitalism in the developed world, particularly Europe and United States, generated the need for ever-greater amounts of labor, raw materials, and energy resources. Europe and the United States have tried to meet these needs through the fastest and cheapest means possible; however, this has led to intentional or unintentional consequences such as colonialism, imperialism, the slave trade, occupations, chaotic urbanization, the elimination of traditional manual labor, etc. On the other hand, although development is considered an economic achievement, this economic mode of production has social and political implications. We will therefore attempt to understand the social and political implications of economic development within and across global cities. 

Learning Outcomes (Tugrul Keskin):
By the end of the course, you will have enhanced your:
§  Critical thinking in relation to international studies
§  Ability to question dogmas and taboos in today’s societies
§  Consciousness of differing perspectives and diversity
§  Understanding of world issues and trends
§  Understanding of the impact of colonialism and imperialism in                     developing nations

You also will have increased your knowledge concerning:
§  Resources in your potential discipline
§  Resources specific to your region
§  Traditional information sources
§  Alternative information sources
§  Knowledge of relevant methodologies

Learning Outcomes for International Studies at Portland State University:

Core Learning Outcome: Students will demonstrate an understanding of world cultures, politics, and economics, within the context of globalization, as well as developing the skills and attitudes to function as “global citizens.”

Specific Outcomes:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of global issues, processes, trends and systems (i.e. economic and political interdependency among nations; environmental-cultural interaction; global governance bodies).
  • Can articulate an understanding of her/his culture in global and comparative context; that is, recognizes that her/his culture is one of many diverse cultures and that alternate perceptions and behaviors may be based in cultural differences.
  • Demonstrates an understanding of the meaning and practice of political, military, economic, and cultural hegemony within states and within the global system.
  • Demonstrates an understanding of how her/his field is viewed and practiced in different international contexts.
  • Uses diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference, including those of the media, to think critically and solve problems.
  • Uses information from other languages and other countries to extend their access to information and experiences.
  • Interprets issues and situations from more than one cultural perspective.
  • Can articulate differences among cultures; demonstrates tolerance for the diverse viewpoints that emerge from these differences.
  • Demonstrates a critical understanding of the historical origins of the nation-state, and its current role in the global system.
  • Can apply the key theoretical concepts in the field to interpret global issues.
  • Exhibits an ongoing willingness to seek out international or intercultural opportunities.

Required Readings:
These are required books for this course. All of them are available at the University Bookstore or you can order new or used copies from online bookstores. 

  1. Globalization and Urbanization: The Global Urban Ecosystem by James H. Spencer. Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781442214743
  2. Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective by Philip McMichael. Pine Forge Press, 2012. http://www.sagepub.com/textbooks/Book234283  
  3. The Sociology of Work by Keith Grint. Polity Press, 2005. http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745632490

Recommended Books:
  1. Robert Perrucci and Carolyn C. Perrucci. The Transformation of Work in the New Economy. Oxford University Press, 2007. http://global.oup.com/ushe/product/the-transformation-of-work-in-the-new-economy-9780195330816?q=The Transformation of Work&lang=en&cc=us
  2. Saskia Sassen. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton University Press, 2001. http://press.princeton.edu/titles/6943.html
  3. J. Timmons Roberts and Amy Hite (Editors). The Globalization and Development Reader: Perspectives on Development and Global Change. Wiley Blackwell, 2007. http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1405132361.html
  4. David Harvey. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford University Press, 2006. http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Politics/PoliticalTheory/ContemporaryPoliticalThought/?view=usa&ci=9780199283279
  5. Philip McMichael (Editor). Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective. Sage, 2011. http://www.sagepub.com/books/Book234283
  6. Richard LeGates and Frederic Stout (Editors). The City Reader. Routledge, 2011.
  1. Eugenie L. Birch and Susan M. Wachter (Editors). Global Urbanization. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/14780.html
  2. Edward L. Glaeser. Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier. MacMillan, 2011.
  1. Mark Abrahamson. Global Cities. Oxford University Press, 2004.
  1. Bruce G. Carruthers and Sarah L. Babb. Economy/Society: Markets, Meanings, and Social Structure. Pine Forge Press, 2000. http://www.sagepub.com/books/Book235730?siteId=sage-uk&prodTypes=any&q=Economy%2FSociety%3A+Markets%2C+Meanings%2C+and+Social+Structure&fs=1
  2. Barbara Reskin and Irene Padavic. Women and Men at Work. Pine Forge Press, 2002. http://www.sagepub.com/books/Book225466?siteId=sage-us&prodTypes=any&q=Women+and+Men+at+Work&fs=1
  3. Paula J. Dubeck and Kathryn Borman (Editors). Women and Work. Rutgers University Press, 1997. ISBN: 0-8135-2473-3       
  4. Linda E. Lucas (Editor). Unpacking Globalization: Markets, Gender, and Work. Lexington, 2007.
  5. Harvard Business Review on Women in Business. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation (www.hbspress.org), 2005. ISBN: 1-59139-717-0

Course Requirements
To prevent confusion later, please read the following information carefully:

Final Paper: You will choose a global city, such as Shanghai, Jakarta, Seoul, Sao Paulo, Lagos, Mumbai, Tehran, Mexico City, Istanbul, Cairo, or others, and will examine the social and economic life of the city. For example, you may select to look at the political life of Cairo, economic life of Shanghai, or cultural life of Istanbul. How does economic globalization shape and restructure social and political life in the global cities? Note that I must approve your topic and plan ahead of time. A final paper format will be provided and you should follow the same structure.

Please see the following links for your final project:

The final paper proposals are due as MS Word attachments emailed to me by Friday, May 1st. Your final paper must be approved by this date.

The final paper is a short empirical or theoretical paper of at least 4000 words (Font should be Times New Roman, 12 point), doubled spaced, on a focused topic that relates directly to this course. The last day to submit your final paper is Sunday, June 7th.
Criteria:            If you select a final paper topic after May 1st, you will lose 3 points!
                            If your final paper is late, you will lose another 4 points!
                            If your final paper is less then 4000 words, you will lose 5 points!  

Format: APA citation and bibliography format will be followed. http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pub/integrity/pages/styles/.

Reflection Papers: The reflection papers will include an open-book essay that will determine what you have learned in class each week. I will ask you four questions regarding the same week’s class subject and discussion. The reflection papers should be at least 1600 words. Font size should be Times New Roman, 12 point. The due date for each exam is Monday by 12:00 midnight. Criteria: If your paper is less than 1600 words, or late, you will lose 2 points.   

Weekly Presentations: Each week, two or three students will be assigned a weekly topic from the readings. These students will summarize the readings and prepare an outline and 4-6 questions for class, in order to come prepared to lead the class discussion. Each student must always read the course materials before they attend class, and I expect you to participate actively in the class discussion. I strongly recommend that you present in earlier weeks rather than later in the semester, because you may not find the right time available to present and will lose presentation points. Presentation dates are available on a first-come, first-served basis. The timeline for weekly presentations will be provided in the first week of the class. After we have filled in student names and finalized the weekly presentation schedule, it will be posted to D2L. 

Newspaper Articles: During the semester, you can bring 5 newspaper articles related to our class subjects. You cannot bring more than one article in the same week. You will have to summarize these articles verbally in class and will find the recommended newspapers listed on Blackboard, under the external links section. Newspaper articles sent by email will not be accepted. Please bring the first page of the printed/hard copy of the article to class. You can only bring an article from the selected newspapers, posted on Blackboard, which you will find under the links section. Some of the recommended newspapers include The Guardian, Al-Jazeera, Democracynow.org, Financial Times, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Economist. You can only bring an article on Mondays.
Attendance: Regular class attendance is one of the important parameters to successful completion of the course requirements.

Participation: Each student must read course material before they attend class and I expect them to participate in class discussion.

Grades: Your grade for this course will be based on your performance on the following components, shown with their dates and respective weights.

Item                                                    Date                                        Weight (%)

5 Reflection Papers                          Every Monday                       56.0
Final Paper                                        June 7th                                 24.0
Attendance/ Class Participation                                                       5.0
Newspaper Articles                                                                            5.0    
Weekly Presentation                                                                                   10.0    

Grades: Your grade for this course will be based on your performance on the following components, shown with their dates and respective weights:

The grading system in this class is as follows:
A                95-100     
A-              90-94    
B+              86-89    
B                85     
B-               80-84    
C+              76-79    
C                75    
C-               70-74    
D+             66-69    
D                65    
D-              60-64
F                (Failure)     

PLEASE READ CAREFULLY! - Electronic Devices & Other Classroom Policies

Coming late to class and leaving early: Latecomers will not be accepted in the class, so be on time. If you are late for a class, please do not disturb your classmates and me and do not come at all. Please also do not send an email or call me regarding your class attendance. If there is a medical need, bring a letter from a doctor. Whatever the reason, if you cannot come to class, this is your responsibility. If you miss more than 4 classes, you will not receive an attendance/participation grade. PLEASE DO NOT LEAVE EARLY EITHER! This is a class, not a coffee shop!

Laptop and cell phone policy: No electronic devices (including but not limited to laptops, cell phones, BlackBerries, etc.) are to be used in the classroom. This includes talking on the phone, texting, playing games, surfing the web, or any other inappropriate usage. Those caught using restricted devices will be asked to leave class. Lectures may not be recorded with audio or multi-media devices. Please turn your cell phone off before you come to class.

Responsibility: You and/or your parents pay tuition for this class; therefore, you have responsibility to yourself and/or your parents. Passing or failing the class is not the main objective; rather, the main objective is that you learn and improve your knowledge. Please read and try to understand the main concepts of this class. If you are having difficulty, please do not hesitate to see me and discuss your concerns!

Each year, almost half a million people graduate from American public universities (see http://collegecompletion.chronicle.com/). As you will see from the statistics, the job market is very competitive; therefore, students need to improve their knowledge, skills, and experience in order to find a job they want. Learning is a lifelong process. An academic institution like Portland State University will provide you with an educational discipline and methodology; everything else is up to you. You should study and improve your skills, in order to compete with the rest of the graduates. While you are in the program, you should apply for internships to obtain relevant experiences before you graduate. Therefore, if you need a letter of recommendation for an internship or job, please do not hesitate to ask me, if you receive at least an A, A-, or B+ grade from my class. Please also remember that an undergraduate degree might not be enough to find the job you want; therefore, you might need to apply to graduate school. In order to apply to graduate school, you will also need to have a letter of recommendation. I am also happy to advise you on graduate school or provide a letter of recommendation if you receive an A, A-, or B+ grade. 

-You are expected to follow PSU’s student code of conduct, particularly 577-031-0135 and 577-031-0136, which can be found at
Violations of the code will be reported to the Office of the Dean of Student Life.
-You are encouraged to take advantage of instructor and TA office hours or email communication for help with coursework or anything else connected with the course and your progress.
-If you are a student with a documented disability and are registered with Disability Resource Center (503.725.4150 or TDD 725.6504), please contact the instructor immediately to arrange academic accommodations.
-Make sure you have an ODIN account; this email will be used for D2L and important emails from the instructor and TA.  DO NOT USE THE INTERNAL D2L mail function to contact us. If you do not typically use your PSU ODIN account, figure out how to get your mail from this account forwarded to the account you usually use.


Additional Remarks: If you have difficulty with the course, please schedule a time to discuss your concerns with me to help you get back on track.          

If you have any questions regarding class-related subjects, please do not hesitate to ask me.


First Week
March 30 – April 3

A Brief Introduction to the Course and Overview of the Syllabus
Urbanism as a Way of Life by Louis Wirth (D2L)
(The Sociology of Work)
What is Work? - Pages 6-43
(Development and Social Change)
1. Development: Theory and Reality 

DOCUMENTARY: Charlie Chaplin - Factory Work - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfGs2Y5WJ14

Second Week
April 6 - 10

(The Sociology of Work)
Work in historical perspective - Pages 45-84
(Development and Social Change)
Part I. The Development Project (Late 1940s to Early 1970s)  
2. Instituting the Development Project

DOCUMENTARY: Chongqing - China's Secret Metropolis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXQOBM37MH0
The American Industrial Revolution

Third Week
April 13 - 17

(The Sociology of Work)
Classical Approach to Work: Marx, Weber and Durkheim – Pages 85-108.
(Development and Social Change)
3. The Development Project: International Framework          
(Globalization and Urbanization)
Chapter 1: Urbanization and the Construction of the Global Urban Ecosystem

DOCUMENTARY: Welcome to Lagos –(Lagos, Nigeria)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B_HGHj5kTM4
Bombay Dreams

April 19

Reflection Paper – 1
Fourth Week
April 20 - 24

(The Sociology of Work)
Class, Industrial Conflict and the Labor Process – Pages 152 – 189.
(Development and Social Change)
4. Globalizing Development
(Globalization and Urbanization)
Chapter 2: Urban Histories: Arriving at the Global Urban Ecosystem

DOCUMENTARY: Born into Brothels (Kolkata , India) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_kyXFr2g1x8

April 26

Reflection Paper – 2
Monday April 27
Final Paper Proposal must be approved by Monday, April 27th
Please email me your final paper proposal and name of the group members.

Fifth Week
April 27 – May 1

(The Sociology of Work)
Gender, Patriarchy and Trade Unions – Pages 190 – 236.
(Development and Social Change)
Part II. The Globalization Project (1980s to 2000s)    
5. Instituting the Globalization Project
(Globalization and Urbanization)
Chapter 3: Saigon’s “Do-Your-Timers”: Rural Transformation and the Urban Transition in Saigon

DOCUMENTARY: China Rises - City of Dreams

Sixth Week
May 4 - 8

(The Sociology of Work)
Race, Ethnicity and Labour Markets: Recruitment and the Politics of Exclusion – Pages 237 – 281.
(Development and Social Change)
6. The Globalization Project in Practice
(Globalization and Urbanization)
Chapter 4: “Do-Your-Timers” African Style: Addis Ababa, the Unlikely Capital of Africa

DOCUMENTARY: Mega Cities - Hong Kong
Megacities - São Paulo

May 10

Reflection Paper – 3
Seventh Week
May 11 - 15

(The Sociology of Work)
Working Technology – Pages 282 – 311.
(Development and Social Change)
7. Global Counter movements
(Globalization and Urbanization)
Chapter 5: The Indigenous City? Reconciling an Old-Timers' Honolulu with a Global Society

DOCUMENTARY: MEGACITIES London - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8o8KamOISs

Eighth Week
May 18 - 22

(The Sociology of Work)
Present Work: The Age of Employment – Pages 313 – 354.
(Development and Social Change)
Part III. Millennial Reckonings (2000s-Present)         
8. The Globalization Project in Crisis          
(Globalization and Urbanization)
Chapter 6: “For-All-Timers”: New York City’s Empire State of Mind


May 24

Reflection Paper – 4
Ninth Week
May 25 - 29

(The Sociology of Work)
Future Work: Globalization and the Age of Enthralment?
(Development and Social Change)
9. The Sustainability Project
(Globalization and Urbanization)
Chapter 7: The Global Urban Ecosystem: A Globally Integrated Ecology of Everyday Life

May 31

Reflection Paper -5
Tenth Week
June 1 - 5

(The Sociology of Work)
(Development and Social Change)
10. Rethinking Development

DOCUMENTARY: Education City (Qatar)

Sunday June 7th
Final Paper Deadline
Sunday June 7th Midnight
Please email me your paper.